Video URL http://pirsa.org/21090004
Although cold dark matter (CDM) has been established, this is only the case for measurements at large scales, which are larger than galaxy-sized structures. Even though we need to understand the important role of baryonic components, matter distribution at small scales can be the key to distinguishing different particle dark matter candidates. In fact, warm dark matter, self-interacting dark matter, and fuzzy dark matter have been proposed, yielding different matter distributions at sub-galactic scales. These small-scale distributions have been studied with numerical simulations. Whereas very reliable, numerical simulations suffer certain issues. They are limited by both numerical resolution and shot noise. They tend to take a lot of computational time. These might be a bottleneck for surveying through multi-dimensional parameter space of various dark matter models. I present semi-analytic models of small-scale structure, especially dark matter subhalos, which are based on structure formation theory and the tidal evolution of subhalos. Our models for CDM have been well tested against the results of various numerical simulations. The semi-analytic models are free from all the problems of the numerical simulations mentioned above. Therefore, they might be essential ingredients for identifying the particle nature of dark matter through gravitational (lensing, pulsar timing), astrophysical (satellite counts, stellar streams), and astroparticle probes (gamma rays).