A possible solution of the problem of time in quantum gravitational systems is presented based on a relational description between the parameterized Dirac observables of the system under consideration and the clocks. The use of physical clocks required by a quantum gravitational description of time is shown to induce a loss of unitarity. The evolution is described by a Lindblad-type master equation unless it is possible to construct a perfect clock. I show that fundamental uncertainties in time measurements could arise due to quantum and gravitational effects, leading to the conclusion that there is always a loss of unitarity induced by the use of physical clocks. The extension of the analysis to physical reference frames in totally constrained systems is sketched.


Talk Number 21060108
Speaker Profile Rodolfo Gambini
Collection Quantizing Time
Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive
Subject Quantum Physics